What is Thermal Runaway?

Thermal runaway is a failure mode of Li-Ion batteries in which the energy stored within a cell is released near-instantaneously.  This energy manifests in the form of intense heat, accompanied by a violent expulsion of flammable gases and particulates.

The failure of a single cell is often sufficient to induce thermal runaway in adjacent cells or modules within a larger battery pack.  In recent years there have been many
high-profile cases of this happening with consumer goods and electric vehicles

Causes of a thermal runaway event

  • Short Circuit
  • Crushing
  • Overheating
  • Puncture
  • Overcharging


Mitigating thermal runaway?

Unless additional safety solutions are employed to control heat transfer between battery pack elements, remove thermal energy from the system, and extinguish open flames resulting from a runaway event a compromised Li-Ion battery will cause adjacent cells or modules to enter thermal runaway as well, resulting in the fiery explosion of the entire battery pack in what is termed ‘thermal runaway propagation’.

Mitigating this risk is a key element of safe battery pack design and requires a nuanced solution to each of the various dangers associated with thermal runaway of Li-Ion batteries.

Latent Heat Solutions’ XTS product line is designed and tested to mitigate these critical threats to battery pack components, and completely prevent thermal runaway propagation in a single compact, cost-effective package.

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